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Class I: It includes diffused bite marks, which is having limited class characteristics and lacks individual characteristics. The following are characteristics that are noticible when a physical change is happening. Dissolving, breaking and melting is included, but this change is easily reversible. Learning Objectives-Nature of Physical Evidence A. All characteristics that are common to a group are called class characteristics. Measurable characteristics of matter may be categorized as either chemical or physical properties. 1. Physical evidence is any object or material that is relevant in a crime; also known as indirect ... items that share properties or characteristics ... the ability of evidence to prove something that is material to a crime . Types of deductive reasoning Law of detachment . Examination of some physical evidence is conducted by making impressions in plaster, taking images of marks, or lifting the fingerprints from objects encountered. If you alter the compounds that are used to make glass, different types of glass can be made. Physical evidence may be used to establish an element of a crime such as the presence of an accelerant at the point of origin of a fire in a suspected arson. The value of hair evidence is related to the variability of hair characteristics between individuals in the population, which can be visualized through the use of comparison microscopy. It can link the criminal to the crime scene by the vari­ If evidence is determined to possess class characteristics it may serve as a mechanism to reduce the number of suspects, but it cannot be directly connected to one person or source. In the context of this module, general rifling characteristics of the barrel of a firearm are the class characteristics of interest. Firearms evidence is similar to the types of characteristics of fingerprints. Class evidence is material in a criminal investigation that can be linked with a group of people, but not a specific individual. individual differences from other (ingroup) persons. If the class characteristics of the two prints are not in agreement, then the first print is automatically eliminated. Comparison C. Define Individual vs. Class Characteristics- Give examples Introduction to Physical Evidence I. Pre-class activities A. Social identity refers to social categorizations of self and others, self-categories which define the individual in terms of his or her shared similarities with members of certain social categories in contrast to other social categories. Class characteristic - properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and not a single source. The conclusion (Q) is deduced from this argument and its hypothesis: P → Q (conditional statement) P (hypothesis is proposed) Q (conclusion is deduced) They are distinct and an extremely useful form of forensic evidence. Individual Evidence. Color Shape can change the substance but not its chemical composition. Class characteristic – properties of evidence that can only be associated with a group and not a single source. Class characteristics – Measurable features of a specimen that indicate a restricted group source. Individual characteristics are properties associated with a common source to a high degree of certainty. I assume you're talking about the concept of individual vs. class characteristics in forensic studies and criminology. This type of evidence may be used to narrow down a list of possible suspects. CLASS AND INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTIC EVIDENCE Class: a group of objects or persons with characteristic physical evidence common to it Examples include soil and hair Individual characteristics can be identified as having originated with a particular person or source One major distinction is between physical and biological evidence. It can take on almost any form: as large as a building, as fl eeting as an odor, as small as a hair, or even submicroscopic, like DNA evidence. 4 Classifying Characteristics Physical evidence has two classifying characteristics, Individual Characteristics and Class Characteristics. Class vs. Define things by their use Developing a sense of humor Communicate best within a small group of peers May need guidance of adult when starting a new task Physical Social-Emotional Cognitive Middle Years Grades 2-3 (7-9 years) Enthusiastic about games Experiencing improvement in both gross and fine motor skills Possess a high activity level A single statement is made and a hypothesis (P) is proposed. Announcements and Assignments for next week II. Class evidence is the category for most evidence. Middle class and working class refer to two groups of people who are separated in the social hierarchy due to the nature of their jobs, education, values, lifestyles, etc. Physical evidence may consist of all sorts of prints such as fingerprints, footprints, handprints, tidemarks, cut marks, tool marks, etc. Working class and middle class are terms that are used frequently when discussing politics, economics and socio-economic conditions in … List the common types of physical evidence B. Guns account for many of the violent crimes today, but the crime scene and firearms evidence can reveal the … Class vs Individual Evidence In your own words, define… Class Characteristics: Physical qualities that a group of items or people share Individual Characteristics: Physical qualities unique to an individual item Complete the data table by visiting the 15 stations around the room and determining if each item is class or individual evidence. To use these Classes of Evidence, one must identify the Type of study, and then classify it according to the following table, e.g., Type = Reliability, Classification = Class 1-2. Physical Change: Only Changes the appearance but not the chemical component. It turns out that although viruses can attack living organisms, cause diseases, and even reproduce, they do not meet the criteria that biologists use to define life. Physical evidence is generally much more Texture can be different depending on the physical change it has expierenced. This is called individual evidence. Therefore, the individual x is mortal. Such as bruise, diffused bite mark, a smoking ring or, a faint bite mark. Examples are fingerprints, handwriting, DNA patterns, and sometimes physical matches, such as a piece of broken glass that exactly fits to its mate (like a jigsaw puzzle piece). They result from design factors and are therefore determined prior to manufacture. Similarly, evidence that possesses individual characteristics may be referred to as individual evidence. In combination with other evidence in a case, it can demonstrate that a limited number of people had all of the characteristics associated with evidence left by a perpetrator. In order to classify levels of evidence for the different categories listed above, it was necessary to derive the following table of “Classifications of Evidence”. The individual x is a man. Thus, while the class characteristics may be identical on bullets fired by two different weapons, the individual characteristics will be different. Both: They both invlove changes in the state of matter. Source with an extremely high degree of proof or disproof if you alter the compounds that are noticible when physical! Fibers, and mold characteristics, as is the difference between a chemical property and a physical change only. 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